Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

Amelia M. Lee


This study examined the relationship between teacher feedback variables, student process variables, and student achievement. Another purpose was to investigate the mediating role of student process variables in student achievement. The subjects were 41 college students enrolled in two beginning badminton classes, and an experienced physical education teacher volunteered to teach both classes. Ten 45 minute instructional sessions took place over a 5 week period. Each class session was videotaped for subsequent coding. Subjects were pretested, posttested, and given a retention test on three badminton skills, the forehand high serve, the forehand overhead clear, and the backhand overhead clear. Student practice was coded to determine the total number of practice trials, the number of correct trials, the number of correct trials after feedback, and the students' use of feedback provided by the teacher. A modified version of Fishman and Tobey teacher feedback observation system was used to code teacher feedback episodes. Analysis of pretest, posttest, and retention test scores showed that students made significant improvements for the three skills during the unit and the performance level was maintained after an 11-day period without practice. Teacher feedback behavior patterns were consistent with previous studies, and the occurrence of feedback was not related to achievement. Correct practice was the best predictor of achievement, but significant relationships were found between students' use of teacher feedback and the number of correct trials. The results suggest that students' use of teacher feedback serves to modify practice which leads to greater learning.