Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Animal Science (Animal, Dairy, and Poultry Sciences)

First Advisor

Kenneth W. McMillin


Binding and texture are important attributes of restructured meats which are dependent upon protein properties. Meat was pre-salted with 0, 2.25, 4.5, 6.75, or 9.0% sodium chloride (NaCl) and extracted with buffers (pH 6.0) containing 0, 0.6, 1.2, 1.8, or 2.4 M NaCl to determine total extractable protein (TEP). Increased NaCl level in extraction buffers increased TEP, but NaCl levels of 2.25 and 4.5% in meat interfered with release of solubilized proteins into extraction solutions. Restructured beef roasts of 0, 0.45 or 0.9% NaCl and 0, 0.225 or 0.45% sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) were manufactured with 10% mechanically separated beef (MSB), washed MSB or minced beef (control) preblended with 0, 4.5 or 9.0% NaCl and 0, 2.25, or 4.5% STPP. Beef roasts containing preblended MSB had similar cooking loss (CL) and tensile strength (TS) compared to the controls, but washing of MSB decreased functionality (CL and TS) in restructured roasts. Addition of NaCl and STPP improved CL, TS and tenderness, but chloride ions were more effective than phosphate ions at equivalent ionic strengths for decreased CL and increased tenderness. Ionic strength of preblended treatments explained 65.4, 44.8 and 45.1% of the variations in CL, TS and tenderness, respectively. The relationships of physicochemical properties of extracted proteins to the functionality of precooked roasts showed trends for relationship between loss of sulfhydryl content and CL, hydrophobicity and TS, and initial sulfhydryl content in meat and tenderness. Precooked roasts containing 10% MSB were lighter and more yellow and had a higher chroma value compared to the controls. Roasts with MSB initially had a similar redness to the controls and remained unchanged during refrigerated storage of 14 days although redness for the controls continuously decreased. Both 9% NaCl and 4.5% STPP additions to preblends independently enhanced initial redness of roasts and provided for increased redness throughout 14 days of storage at 2$\sp\circ$C. A formulation of 10% MSB, 0.45% NaCl and 0.45% STPP is suggested for precooked, low-sodium, low-cost restructured beef roasts which would be marketed through refrigerated display.