Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


This study analyzed the characteristics of both dynamic and isometric relative endurance curves for four different muscle groups of the upper extremities. College males (N = 56) were tested on the Cybex Isokinetic Dynamometer both isometrically and dynamically on four exercises: bench press, arm curls, shoulder internal rotation and wrist flexion. In all, eight separate exercises were examined. Each dynamic and isometric exercise bout was for 80 and 60 s, respectively and data were recorded ever 4 s. Parameters examined were Maximal Strength, Total Force Output, Relative Total (RT, TFO, divided by 80s or 60s x peak force), and Relative Final (RF, the area produced during the last 12 s divided by 12s x peak force). A 4(exercises) x 2(dynamic, isometric) MANOVA with repeated measures was completed to determine if their were significant differences in RT and RF across repeated contractions for each task and each muscle group. The stability reliability coefficients for eight exercise bouts ranged from.84 to.98. Relative endurance scores of muscle groups were generally independent of one another, as were the relative endurance measures for dynamic and isometric contractions. Relative endurance depends on the kind of exercise being performed, that is, the type of contraction, and the size of muscle group. The results of this study support the contention that relative endurance scores of muscle groups of the upper extremities are independent of one another and are specific to the types of contraction.