Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Computer Science

First Advisor

Donald Kraft


This dissertation presents a resolution proof technique for Propositional Linear Temporal Logic of discrete time with the "Until" operator. The presented proof technique stems from the resolution method developed by L. Farinas del Cerro and A. Cavalli. However, their method is incomplete, and their completeness proof, as originally reported, is incorrect. Unlike Farinas's method, our proof technique incorporated the "Until" operator, which is a very powerful and useful in describing complex temporal relationships which are common in many areas of computer science. Our technique is also proved complete. The presented resolution method for linear temporal logic is similar to classical resolutions: the main goal is to show unsatisfiability of a set of temporal clauses by locating, either directly or indirectly, a state which contains unsatisfiability. Subsequent resolvents of a refutation are obtained by resolving out complementary literals referring to the same instant of time. In order to increase the efficiency of the resolution proof technique, we have developed a refinement of the presented basic method. This refinement is similar to the well-known Ordered Linear (OL) strategy for classical resolution. We also present the lifting of the basic resolution method to predicate linear temporal logic. Unlike First Order Logic, clauses of predicate linear temporal logic may contain variables which are quantified existentially, because skolemization is not valid here. We use standard unification with substitution on universally quantified variables. However, if a term substituted in place of a variable contains any flexible symbols, a constant or a function is flexible if it has different translation in different states, then all occurrences of the substituted variable must refer to the same instant of time (state). Otherwise, the unification may lead to incorrect results. Resolution in predicate linear temporal logic, though very useful from a practical standpoint, is incomplete, since no predicate temporal logic with arithmetic model of time is complete.