Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

Earl H. Cheek, Jr


The purpose of the nine-week study was to explore, using taped book intervention, the oral reading fluency of six struggling third-grade readers. The low-income, inner city, African American students were selected using teacher recommendations, standardized test scores, and the school system's Grade Level Indicators of Essential Knowledge---Grade 3 English Language Arts. Procedures used in the study were observing, collecting field notes, reviewing documents, conducting open-ended interviews, prioritizing book selection interests, and making assessments. Pre- and post-intervention assessments included the following: (1) oral reading rate---the Gray Oral Reading Test-3 (GORT-3), two-minute timed readings, and Corduroy benchmark probes; (2) word recognition---Slosson Oral Reading Test-R (SORT-R) and Revised Dolch List (R-Dolch); (3) interest surveys---"Thinking About My Reading" and Prioritized Book Selection; and (4) attitudinal surveys---"Reading and Me" and the "Elementary Reading Attitude Survey" (ERAS). Post-intervention assessment results show that students increased in oral reading fluency---rate, word recognition, and prosody. In rate, GORT-3 results show increases from 0.4 to 1.0 in grade equivalents, and two-minute timed readings show increases from 23.1 to 30.5 wpm. Corduroy benchmark probes show decrease in miscues and increase in wpm. In word recognition, SORT-R results show increases of 0.6 to 1.6 in grade equivalents and R-Dolch results indicate that all students increased to on or above third-grade level. Observation of students' oral reading reveals increased expressiveness and attention to punctuation, important features of prosody. Other assessments show students' increased interest in academically supported and authentic literature and indicate that students see themselves as better readers and are more engaged in reading tasks. The findings suggest that taped book intervention improves oral reading performance. The six students in this study gained in oral reading fluency, vocabulary development, textual expression and intonation, affirmative reading attitudes, positive reading interests, comprehension, and the acquisition, application, and appreciation of new learning.