Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


The effect of individual performance standards on the relationship between selected process variables and achievement for students in elementary physical education classes was investigated. The subjects were 78 fourth grade and 80 fifth grade students from eight classes in two elementary schools. Two fourth and fifth grades received standards and two fourth and fifth grades did not. A one week experimental teaching unit was used. A Solomon 4-group design was used in an effort to determine if there was a pretest effect. The data were analyzed in a Treatment (standard-no standard) x Pre (pre-no pretest) x sex (male-female) x grade (fourth-fifth) MANOVA using posttest and motor appropriate trials as the dependent measures and was followed-up by two separate ANOVAs. Correlation was used to establish the relationship between behavior patterns and performance. As expected, the treatment group was better than the control group, boys better than girls and fifth graders better than fourth. Individuals with standards performed significantly better than those with no standards. The pre x treatment interaction suggested that having a pretest tends to standardize the amount of practice an individual takes. There was a positive relationship between motor appropriate practice and performance regardless of treatment group. These data suggest that performance can be improved by individual performance standards and that care should be taken in using pre- and posttest methods for testing motor skill.