Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Data from a regional sample of 2100 two-parent, two-child families drawn from communities in eleven states including New York, Oregon, North Carolina, Utah, Connecticut, Virginia, Oklahoma, California, Texas, Louisiana, and Wisconsin, were collected in 1977-79 as part of United States Department of Agriculture Regional Project 113, "An Interstate Urban/Rural Comparison of Families' Time Use.". The results of this analysis were presented in the framework of exchange theory and values theory using Robin Williams' values schema. The analysis was discussed in terms of possible application for energy conservation. The data were analyzed using analyses of covariance and analyses of variance models. A pairwise comparison of the least square means or a Duncan's Multiple Range Test was conducted to determine the source of significant differences. The most travel time was spent by the families as a whole in travel related to social and recreational activities followed by paid work, shopping, school, chauffeuring, organizations, eating out, and unpaid work. Overall, the families in the rural areas traveled about the same amount of time as families in urban areas. There were, however, differences in the type of travel the families did. Rural husbands traveled less for paid work but more for organizations. Rural wives traveled more for social and recreational activities and for unpaid work than did their urban counterparts. Travel time was significantly greater for most activities in the summer except for travel to school which was significantly less in the summer. The husbands and families with fewer vehicles spent more time chauffeuring than those with more vehicles. Husbands and wives who owned more vehicles spent more time traveling for social and recreational activities than those with fewer vehicles. The families in an urban sample from Louisiana spent significantly more time traveling than families in community samples from the other states, especially for social and recreational activities and for eating out.