Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


The degree of people's participation in development programs appears to be the major determinant of development successes or failures. However, the strategy which makes participation efforts successful remains a mystery. This study aims to unravel that mystery by investigating factors significantly associated with farmers' participation in rural development programs. Using a probability random sample of 215 households from the rural community in the municipality of Samarinda, Indonesia, this study explores four major groups of variables (social exchange, individualism, social structure, and socio-political atmosphere) as they encompass factors associated with the degree of farmers' participation. The findings suggest that the social exchange perspective is a fruitful device for explaining the nature of social participation. From this view point, variable patterns of farmer participation in development programs which produce optimal benefits for both farmers and society can be explained by analysis of exchange relationships. A most interesting aspect of these findings reveals the substantial impact that power of authority has on the degree of farmers' participation. Findings suggest that the ability of authorities to exercise power in persuading farmers to cooperate is exchanged for recognition, social service, and social approval of the farmers by the authorities. This appears to be particularly true for communities where people are oriented towards the longstanding tradition of paternal-type social relationships.