Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


This study investigated the effects of modes of presentation (lecture, simulation game and inquiry) and levels of assertiveness (measured by the High School Self-Expression Scale) on achievement of cognitive and affective objectives in a senior high social studies course. Seniors (N = 310) attending five public high schools in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, were randomly scheduled, by computer, into three predesignated class sections of Free Enterprise in their respective schools. One teacher in each of the five schools was assigned to teach the three designated classes. Class sections were assigned a presentation mode (lecture, simulation game, or inquiry) and the level of assertiveness of each student was assessed. Students were dichotomized as high assertive, assertive, moderate, nonassertive or high nonassertive, according to the High School Self-Expression Scale. Each class section received instruction in budgeting and installment buying using one of the modes of presentation. At the end of five class periods of instruction, achievement was measured using a 43-item posttest. Subject content of the materials in all three modes was identical, only the mode of presentation was varied. The study utilized a 5 x 3 x 2 factorial, posttest only design. The data was subjected to a parametric analysis of variance to test seven null hypotheses. F scores were computed, and the .05 level was chosen for the measure of statistical significance. The results indicated: (1) There was a significant difference in the achievement of females over males. (2) There was no significant difference among test scores as a result of modes of presentation. (3) There was no significant difference in posttest scores in regard to level of assertiveness; however, trends toward significance was indicated. (4) There were no significant interactive effects among levels of assertiveness and sex. (5) There were no significant interactive effects among levels of assertiveness and modes of prsentation; however, trends toward significance were indicated. (6) There were no significant interactive effects among sex and modes of presentation. (7) There were no significant interactive effects among level of assertiveness, sex, treatment and achievement test scores. Implications of these results were discussed as they related to theory and the research setting. Recommendations for further research included replication of the study in other courses and with other units of instruction. Additionally, it was recommended that further studies should be conducted, examining the factor of assertiveness in relation to levels of cognitive and affective learning and prior levels of achievement.