Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


The purpose of this study was to determine if there were differences in para-proxemic attributions (effectations based upon the relative distance of a media source) to the extreme close-up as opposed to the close-up camera shots. Differences in audience response by sex of subject were found. Two stimuli were simultaneously videotaped of a man making an informative speech. The first tape was composed of establishing shots and extreme close-up shots. The second tape was comprised of establishing shots and close-up shots. The establishing shots were constant in both tapes. In the first tape a cut from the establishing shot to the extreme close-up shot would electronically trigger a cut in the second tape from the establishing shot to the close-up shot. Because of the baseline nature of research in paraproxemic attributions and the lack of a valid and reliable instrument for use as the dependent measure a pilot study was run. After viewing one of the two treatment subjects responded to a revised version of the McCroskey and Jenson instrument for the measurement of perceived image of mass media news sources. Subjects responses were subjected to image factor analysis. This analysis yielded a three factor structure for the male subjects and a four factor structure for the female subjects. A subsequent treatment condition with a new subject population yielded an almost identical factor pattern as that in the pilot study. Three factors emerged for the male subjects and four factors emerged for the female respondents. It was determined that the different factor structures showed a difference in subjects attributions toward the stimulus based upon the independent variable of sex of respondent. Multiple discriminant analysis was then run to determine if the sex specific instruments could differentiate subjects responses by treatment condition. Results of those analyses showed that the sex specific instruments could correctly classify the subjects by para-proxemic treatment conditions upwards of 63% in every condition except the male extreme close-up condition. The lack of linearity of responses in this condition was explained as a result of a response ambiguity for males in an "invading" situation. Further research was suggested to determine which specific items were responded to differently by treatment conditions. Additionally, a different stimulus needed to be designed specific to new situations, and other camera shots tested in varying combinations.