Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



Document Type



Difficulties in academic achievement have been linked to adverse outcomes such as increased problem behavior and delays in development (Hinshaw, 1992). Early education should include training to self-monitor, as self-monitoring can improve academic performance and has a wide range of uses (Harris et al., 2005). Previous literature typically uses frequent self-monitoring opportunities ranging from every 30 seconds to 1 minute. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of the number of self-monitoring opportunities when self-monitoring on-task behavior and self-monitoring accuracy of task completion, on-task behavior, disruptions, and accuracy of self-monitoring (types of errors) and determine the preferences of participants for both the method and number of opportunities to self-monitor. Results showed high levels of on-task behavior across methods and a number of opportunities. Participants completed tasks more accurately when self-monitoring the accuracy of task completion. Overall, there were benefits to self-monitoring less frequently: 2 out of 3 participants were more accurate with fewer opportunities, implementation was easier, mistakes in task completion and self-monitoring were reduced, fewer disruptions, shorter session durations, and less cheating. Participants preferred on-task self-monitoring, though incorporating some component involving accuracy of task completion is beneficial as monitoring on-task behavior alone is often insufficient for ensuring accuracy.



Committee Chair

Jeanne Donaldson