Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Engineering Science

Document Type



This dissertation reports the findings of several studies on the mechanical and microstructural properties of parts made using atomic diffusion additive manufacturing (ADAM) and additive friction stir deposition (AFSD). The design of a small-sized bending-fatigue test specimen for an ultrasonic fatigue testing system is reported in Chapter 1. The design was optimized based on the finite element analysis and analytical solution. The stress–life (S–N) curve is obtained for Inconel alloy 718. Chapter 2 presents the findings of ultrasonic bending-fatigue and tensile tests carried out on the ADAM test specimens. The S-N curves were created in the very high-cycle fatigue regime. The effects of the printing orientation on the fatigue life and tensile strength were discussed, supported by fractography taken from the specimens’ fracture surfaces. The findings of the tests revealed that vertically-oriented test specimens had lower ductility and a shorter fatigue life than their horizontally-oriented counterparts. For the contents presented in Chapter 3, AFSD was used to fabricate aluminum alloy 2050 parts. The hardness values for various regions of the as-deposited part were measured. The as-fabricated parts were found to have a unique hardness distribution due to the location-specific variations in the processing temperature profile. The XRD results indicate the presence of the secondary phases in the deposited parts, and EDS mapping confirms the formation of detectable alloying particles in the as-deposited Al2050 matrix. For the study presented in Chapter 4, AFSD was utilized to produce aluminum alloy 6061 blocks with varying layer thicknesses. The mechanical properties were assessed through tensile and microhardness tests, and statistical analysis was employed to investigate differences among data groups. The results revealed that the deposition layer thickness influences tensile properties in the building (Z) direction, while the properties in the X and Y directions showed minor differences across the three AFSD blocks. Furthermore, variations in tensile properties were observed depending on the sample orientation in the AFSD blocks and its depth-wise position in the part in the building direction. The microhardness values decreased non-linearly along the building direction, spread across the width of the part’s cross-section, and highlighted that the deposition layer thickness significantly affects this property.



Committee Chair

Guo, Shengmin