Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

Document Type



Significant growth in the understanding for nanotechnology has generated possibility of engineered nanomaterials interacting with biomaterials such as lipids, proteins, DNA, cells, membranes, tissues, organelles. Nanostructured materials are involved in an increasingly significant role in the cancer treatment, prognosis, and diagnosis. Nanostructure material-based innovative technologies have been extensively utilized for targeted drug delivery during chemotherapies, photodynamic therapy, and immunotherapy. Other active area of research is the toxicity studies of these nano particles to investigate the cellular uptake and transport of these materials in cells, tissues, and environment. Traditional techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, and mass spectrometry to analyze NP-based cellular transport or toxicity effect are expensive, require extensive sample preparation, and are low-throughput. Darkfield hyperspectral imaging (DF-HSI), an integration of spectroscopy and microscopy/imaging, provides the ability to investigate cellular transport of these NPs and to quantify the distribution of them within biomaterials. DF-HSI also offers versatility in non-invasively monitoring microorganisms, single cell, and proteins. DF-HSI is a low-cost, label-free technique that is minimally invasive and is a viable choice for obtaining high-throughput quantitative molecular analyses. Multimodal imaging modalities such as Two-photon and Raman spectroscopy are also being integrated with HSI systems to enable chemical imaging of the samples. HSI technology is being applied in surgeries to obtain molecular information about the tissues in real-time. This dissertation provides brief overview of DF-HSI and its application for monitoring nanomaterials, single stem-cells, and single-cells incubated with nanomaterials. Results are further supported and validated via electromagnetic finite-difference time-domain simulation, scanning electron microscopy, ellipsometry, fluorescence imaging, Raman spectroscopy, two-photon microscopy, liquid-chromatography. This study addresses novel approach to investigate biophysiochemical interactions of nanomaterials, biomaterials, and combination of bio-nano-materials by combining information from multiple label-free photon-driven modalities with a primary focus on introducing DF-HSI. Traditional methods, labelling-methods, and validation methods are also discussed to support the unique monitoring method. Inventing this new process allows the way to probe relationship between nano and bio materials in the high-throughput manner with high-efficacy.



Committee Chair

Gartia, Manas Ranjan



Available for download on Friday, April 06, 2029