Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Electrical and Computer Engineering

Document Type



Phase-locked loop (PLLs) has been widely used in analog or mixed-signal integrated circuits. Since there is an increasing market for low noise and high speed devices, PLLs are being employed in communications. In this dissertation, we investigated phase noise, tuning range, jitter, and power performances in different architectures of PLL designs. More energy efficient devices such as memristor, graphene, transition metal di-chalcogenide (TMDC) materials and their respective transistors are introduced in the design phase-locked loop.

Subsequently, we modeled phase noise of a CMOS phase-locked loop from the superposition of noises from its building blocks which comprises of a voltage-controlled oscillator, loop filter, frequency divider, phase-frequency detector, and the auxiliary input reference clock. Similarly, a linear time-invariant model that has additive noise sources in frequency domain is used to analyze the phase noise. The modeled phase noise results are further compared with the corresponding phase-locked loop designs in different n-well CMOS processes.

With the scaling of CMOS technology and the increase of the electrical field, the problem of short channel effects (SCE) has become dominant, which causes decay in subthreshold slope (SS) and positive and negative shifts in the threshold voltages of nMOS and pMOS transistors, respectively. Various devices are proposed to continue extending Moore's law and the roadmap in semiconductor industry. We employed tunnel field effect transistor owing to its better performance in terms of SS, leakage current, power consumption etc. Applying an appropriate bias voltage to the gate-source region of TFET causes the valence band to align with the conduction band and injecting the charge carriers. Similarly, under reverse bias, the two bands are misaligned and there is no injection of carriers. We implemented graphene TFET and MoS2 in PLL design and the results show improvements in phase noise, jitter, tuning range, and frequency of operation. In addition, the power consumption is greatly reduced due to the low supply voltage of tunnel field effect transistor.



Committee Chair

Xu, Jian