Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


School of Education College of Human Sciences & Education

Document Type



Black males account for 4.3% of the total enrollment at four-year postsecondary institutions in the United States. The percentage of Black men who are enrolled in college is nearly the same as it was in 1976 (Harper, 2006a; Palmer & Strayhorn, 2008; Strayhorn, 2008a, 2010). With this low exponential growth of Black males attending institutions of higher education, there is the assumption that institutions have not done much to provide for this population of students that are recruited consistently to attend these universities. Black males do not have enough resources to reassure their cultural masculinity as well develop as an individual.

“Black undergraduate men’s experiences and outcomes at four-year colleges and universities have garnered considerable attention from journalists, educators, and foundations over the past two decades” (Amechi, Berhanu, Cox, Mcguire, et al, 2016). It is these trends that validate the lack of policies and practices by university administrators within the institution of higher education, which is failing to adequately prepare current Black students that would increase retention, academic success, and enrollment.

This study is two-fold: (1) to examine how racial identity influences mentorship, self-efficacy, social integration, and persistence amongst Black males in higher education; and (2) to determine the similarities and differences amongst Black student-athletes and Black non-student- athletes based on experiences and data collected.

The results will be provided to assist institutions of higher education practices and policies that should be implemented to cater to Black Students at the university. If higher education can make it a priority to provide a better practice that aids in the development of Black students, institutions can begin analyzing how racial identity influences social integration, mentorship, persistence, and academic self-efficacy of Black students.



Committee Chair

Arbuthnot, Keena



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