Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Nutrition and Food Sciences

Document Type



Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of death in the USA and associated with excessive sodium (Na) intake. Thus, reducing the Na intake is vital to alleviate health concerns. One serving of the average Barbecue sauce (BBQs) may contribute around 15%-20% of the daily Na allowance (2,300 mg). No research has evaluated salt substitutes or visual cues on salty taste perception of BBQs, thus it was the aim of this research. Consumer studies followed a Balanced Incomplete Block (BIB) designs. For Study I, BBQs prototypes followed a 3-components (NaCl : KCl : Glycine) mixture design, with 38% - 87% less Na than the average BBQs in the US. In the first part (t=10, k=3, r=9, b=30), 300 consumers rated their saltiness and bitterness liking (9-point), emotion (5-point) and purchase intent (PI) before and after disclosing a sodium claim corresponding to each sample. In the second part (t=8, k=3, r=9, b=24), 240 consumers rated their expected salty and bitter taste intensity evoked solely by the brown color of BBQs, and then their perceived taste intensity (3-point JAR scale). In Study II, BBQs prototypes followed a factorial combination of three brown color levels and two salt levels (with and without). For the consumer test (t=6, k=2, r=5, b=15), 225 consumers rated their expected salty taste evoked by color only, then the perceived taste intensity before and after disclosing the sodium content of the samples, using a JAR scale. In this study, disclosing the sodium content favored the positive emotions of the consumers towards reduced and low sodium BBQs, which in turn enhanced the odds of positive purchase of these products. Also, the brown color of BBQs modulated the expected and actual salty taste perception (P



Committee Chair

Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon