Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


School of Education

Document Type




The purpose of this mixed methods study is to investigate the global-mindedness among National Geographic Certified Educators. The triangulation of data includes quantitative data, which is the Global-Mindedness Scale (Hett, 1993), and qualitative data, which is the questionnaire, and sample lesson plans. The survey results were based on 485 participants, with 286 National Geographic Certified Educators and 199 non-National Geographic Certified Educators. The survey was conducted through Qualtrics© with privacy protection and the Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) was used for a two-tailed independent sample t-test and Repeated Measures ANOVA to analyze the data. Google Forms was used to distribute the questionnaire, while thematic analysis was used to analyze the questionnaires of 34 National Geographic Certified Educators. Out of 34 participants who took the questionnaire, 16 gave the researcher permission to analyze a sample lesson plan, so 16 lesson plans were analyzed.

An Independent Sample t-test was significant among National Geographic Certified Educators and non-National Geographic Certified Educators (p < .001). The Global-Mindedness Scale (Hett, 1993) was used to determine the degree of global-mindedness. It has five domains (Cultural pluralism, Efficacy, Responsibility, Interconnectedness, and Global centrism). Among the effect sizes, the domain of Efficacy had the largest effect size (d = .55) among both groups. An ANOVA found significant differences among each domain, with Cultural pluralism having the highest mean score among the National Geographic Certified Educators. The qualitative data was analyzed with a priori codes from the five domains, in which Cultural pluralism was the highest-coded theme with 191 instances. Of the 16 lesson plans that were analyzed, 99% used National Geographic MapMaker Kit as a resource.



Committee Chair

Sulentic Dowell, Margaret-Mary