Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Human Resource Education and Workforce Development

Document Type



The purpose of this study was to examine the various factors (age, gender, family status, marital status, and work engagement) and their relationships between longevity of employment tenure, attendance, and job performance of custodial staff at a large, public university. Correlation analyses, univariate simple linear regressions, and Analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyze the data from 259 custodial employees. Results showed that longevity was influenced by age and marital status. Younger individuals had lower longevity and older individuals had higher longevity. The widowed marital status group had significantly higher longevity than the single and married groups. Attendance was influenced by gender, family status and work engagement. Females had lower attendance and males had higher attendance. Family status was associated with a decrease in attendance. Individuals with higher work engagement had higher attendance. Job performance was influenced by age and work engagement. Younger individuals had lower work performance than midage individuals. Lastly, individuals with higher work engagement had better job performance. One of the major findings is that individuals with high work engagement have better attendance and job performance. Human Resource Development practitioners should have focus groups with these individuals to gain insight on what influences their level of engagement, which in turn encourages them to come to work and perform at a higher level of job performance. From this feedback, initiatives could be developed to help increase engagement amongst other employees, therefore increasing attendance and performance overall. Another key finding is that younger individuals had significantly lower job performance than the midage group. Often in research, older individuals were lower performers but that finding could be strongly dependent on the job. This study is significant in that it is the first to analyze custodial staff members at a public university in regards to longevity, attendance, and job performance.



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Committee Chair

Robinson, Petra