Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Physics and Astronomy

Document Type



This thesis deals with understanding quantum gravitational effects in those anisotropic spacetimes which serve as black hole interiors. Two types of spacetime are investigated. Kantowski-Sachs spacetime and Bianchi-III LRS spacetime. The former, in vacuum, is the interor spacetime for Schwarzschild black holes. The latter is the interior for higher genus black holes. These spacetimes are studied in the context of loop quantum cosmology. Using effective dynamics of loop quantum cosmology, the behavior of expansion and shear scalars in different proposed quantizations of the Kantowski-Sachs spacetime with matter is investigated. It is found that out of the various proposed choices, there is only one known prescription which leads to the generic bounded behavior of these scalars. The bounds turn out to be universal and are determined by the underlying quantum geometry. This quantization is analogous to the so called ‘improved dynamics’ in the isotropic loop quantum cosmology, which is also the only one to respect the freedom of the rescaling of the fiducial cell at the level of effective spacetime description. Other proposed quantization prescriptions yield expansion and shear scalars which may not be bounded for certain initial conditions within the validity of effective spacetime description. These prescriptions also have a limitation that the “quantum geometric effects” can occur at an arbitrary scale. We show that the ‘improved dynamics’ of Kantowski-Sachs spacetime turns out to be a unique choice in a general class of possible quantization prescriptions, in the sense of leading to generic bounds on expansion and shear scalars and the associated physics being free from fiducial cell dependence. The behavior of the energy density in the ‘improved dynamics’ reveals some interesting features. Even without considering any details of the dynamical evolution, it is possible to rule out pancake singularities in this spacetime. The energy density is found to be dynamically bounded. These results show that the Planck scale physics of the loop quantized Kantowski-Sachs spacetime has key features common with the loop quantization of isotropic and Bianchi-I spacetimes. The loop quantum dynamics of Kantowski-Sachs spacetime and the interior of higher genus black hole spacetimes with a cosmological constant has some peculiar features not shared by various other spacetimes in loop quantum cosmology. As in the other cases, though the quantum geometric effects resolve the physical singularity and result in a non-singular bounce, after the bounce a spacetime with small spacetime curvature does not emerge in either the subsequent backward or the forward evolution. Rather, in the asymptotic limit the spacetime manifold is a product of two constant curvature spaces. Interestingly, though the spacetime curvature of these asymptotic spacetimes is very high, their effective metric is a solution to the Einstein’s field equations. Analysis of the components of the Ricci tensor shows that after the singularity resolution, the Kantowski-Sachs spacetime leads to an effective metric which can be interpreted as of the ‘charged’ Nariai spacetime, while the higher genus black hole interior can similarly be interpreted as anti Bertotti-Robinson spacetime with a cosmological constant. These spacetimes are ‘charged’ in the sense that the energy momentum tensor that satisfies the Einstein’s field equations is formally the same as the one for the uniform electromagnetic field, albeit it has a purely quantum geometric origin. The asymptotic spacetimes also have an emergent cosmological constant which is different in magnitude, and sometimes even its sign, from the cosmological constant in the Kantowski-Sachs and the interior of higher genus black hole metrics. With a fine tuning of the latter cosmological constant, we show that ‘uncharged’ Nariai, and anti Bertotti-Robinson spacetimes with a vanishing emergent cosmological constant can also be obtained.



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Committee Chair

Singh, Parampreet