Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



Document Type



Individuals with schizophrenia have extremely high smoking rates (70-88%). Compared to smokers in the general population, smokers with schizophrenia have more intense smoking patterns (e.g., more cigarettes per day; smoke stronger cigarettes; higher nicotine dependence, carbon monoxide (CO) boosts, cotinine, and nicotine levels; more extreme smoking topography) and more positive smoking outcome expectancies. However, the relationship between smoking and symptomatology is quite complex. Insight might be gleaned by studying the relationship between smoking and schizotypy, or the putative genetic vulnerability to developing schizophrenia, as it avoids many confounds associated with schizophrenia. This study investigated schizotypy symptoms, smoking characteristics and behaviors, and outcome expectancies in undergraduate students with psychometrically identified schizotypy and demographically matched controls without schizotypy. Results from the screening phase revealed no significant differences in schizotypy traits between smokers with schizotypy (n = 77) and nonsmokers with schizotypy (n = 69). Of those who attended the laboratory phase (n = 44), smokers with schizotypy (n = 26) had significantly higher nicotine dependence than control smokers without schizotypy (n = 18). There was also a non-significant trend in which smokers with schizotypy smoked more cigarettes per week. Additionally, results revealed that smokers with schizotypy were more likely than control smokers to endorse more positive consequences (i.e., improved state enhancement, stimulation, social facilitation, taste/sensorimotor manipulation; boredom and negative affect reduction) than negative consequences of smoking. There were no significant differences between smokers with schizotypy and control smokers on smoking behaviors such as smoking topography or CO readings. These preliminary findings offer insight into mechanisms underlying smoking in individuals with schizotypy.



Document Availability at the Time of Submission

Release the entire work immediately for access worldwide.

Committee Chair

Copeland, Amy L.



Included in

Psychology Commons