Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Educational Theory, Policy, and Practice

Document Type



Video has long been used to support learner reflection in professional education programs in law, health, and education. Emerging video analysis tools offer learners the ability to highlight segments of video and focus their attention to specific moments or aspects of performance. These emerging tools afford opportunities for more systematic observation, analysis, and deliberate reflection on learner performance than was available previously. Expertise research has found that representative, rigorous tasks followed by immediate feedback and error correction constitute deliberate practice. Training environments that incorporate deliberate practice and emerging video annotation and analysis tools provide opportunities for learners pinpoint strengths and weaknesses in a systematic way. The purpose of this descriptive case study was to utilize a mixed method approach that would allow the identification and reveal the development of learner knowledge in an ill- structured professional domain. Data consisting of categorical, evaluative, and descriptive video annotations were collected from a legal interviewing and counseling course. Data were analyzed using Chi's (1997) verbal analysis approach. Verbal analysis is a methodology for quantifying the qualitative coding of the content of verbal utterances. Results imply that verbal analysis may be a useful method for other ill-structured professional domains. While the concept of reflection remains ambiguous, the method demonstrated in this study also provides a means to analyze reflective artifacts to reveal the content or object of reflections. Finally, results suggest that it may be possible to evaluate the development of learner knowledge in ill-structured professional domains.



Document Availability at the Time of Submission

Release the entire work immediately for access worldwide.

Committee Chair

Denny, Kenton



Included in

Education Commons