Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



Document Type



Hormones are typically considered to be chemical messengers, which are designed to be released from specific cells where they are carried to their target tissues for binding to receptors. It is this binding of a hormone molecule to its specific receptor which allows for an action to occur (Hadley and Levine 2006). Testosterone is the predominant androgen in the majority of mammalian species and is largely responsible for regulation of reproduction and maintenance of sexual function. In addition, in adult mammals, T has multiple other roles including the growth of muscle and bone, hematopoesis, blood coagulation, development and regulation of plasma lipids, protein and carbohydrate metabolism, and cognitive function (Bhasin, 2005). Cortisol has typically been thought of as a suppressor of the immune system and an anti-inflammatory agent as it is an inducer of cellular apoptosis. In research where corticosteroids were given intravenously to humans, responses of apoptosis of T and B cells were noted (Cohen and Duke 1984). Testosterone and C as well as other hormones have received significant attention in recent years by several researchers who have proposed a link between these hormones and performance, adaptive capability, and overtraining syndrome (Kraemer & Ratamass, 2005). The use of T to C ratio (T/C) has gained some popularity in recent years as a method to monitor anabolic/catabolic state in athletes, and to predict athletic performance and/or overtraining. There is a growing body of evidence that T/C may be useful in monitoring training stress and physiological phenomenon, however, the relationship between these variables and any actual physical performance has not been solidly established at this time.



Document Availability at the Time of Submission

Release the entire work immediately for access worldwide.

Committee Chair

Arnold G. Nelson



Included in

Kinesiology Commons