Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Biological Sciences

Document Type



Analyses of ITS, ETS and matK sequences for genera of the subtribe Hinterhuberinae, including representatives of 17 subtribes from the tribe Astereae, rooted on Anthemideae, Calenduleae and Inuleae, provide no support for the monophyly of the Hinterhuberinae. Chiliotrichum and Celmisia groups, Olearia in part, Novenia, Oritrophium and Pteronia are in the basal group that also includes subtribe Felicinae. Madagaster, Remya, Olearia in part, Achnophora and Hinterhubera group lie in the Southern Hemisphere grade, with Asterinae, Bellidinae, Brachycominae, Grangeinae, Podocominae, Lagenophorinae and Baccharidinae. Monophyly of Asterinae, Grangeinae, Podocominae and Lagenophorinae is not supported. Instead South American representatives of Lagenophorinae, Grangeinae and Podocominae group with Baccharidinae and Hinterhubera group in the South American clade that is nested in the Southern Hemisphere grade. They are sister to the North American subtribes. Remya, Achnophora, Olearia in part and Australasian, European and African representatives of Asterinae, Brachycominae, Grangeinae, Podocominae and Lagenophorinae are grouped in a polytomy that is basal to the South American clade. Laennecia (Podocominae) is sister to Westoniella (Hinterhuberinae), and Myriactis panamensis (Lagenophorinae) and Plagiocheilus (Grangeinae) group with Archibaccharis (Baccharidinae). The Celmisia group is monophyletic. The radiate Diplostephium and Guynesomia do not group with other radiate genera from the Chiliotrichum group, but are in the Southern Hemisphere grade and close to the disciform Hinterhubera group. Transfer of Blakiella from Podocominae to Hinterhuberinae is supported by the three datasets. Madagaster is isolated from the other Hinterhuberinae in having basal position in the Southern Hemisphere grade. Evolution of dioecy in Baccharidinae and Aztecaster (Hinterhuberinae) evolved independently. Woody habit, epaleate receptacle, bisexual disk florets and ligulate peripheral florets are ancestral states in the tribe Astereae. Staminate disk florets and paleate receptacles are derived characters that evolved in several lineages independently. South America, southern Africa or New Zealand are proposed centers of origin for Astereae and for the Chiliotrichum and Celmisia groups. The Hinterhubera group evolved from the South American autochthonous elements, probably from the lower altitude plants during the uplift of the Andes and the development of páramo habitat.



Document Availability at the Time of Submission

Release the entire work immediately for access worldwide.

Committee Chair

Lowell E. Urbatsch