Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Animal Science (Animal, Dairy, and Poultry Sciences)

Document Type



Reducing the particle size of sodium chloride crystal would increase its dissolution rate leading to a more efficient transfer of the ions to the taste buds and hence perhaps a saltier perception of foods. The objective of this study was to develop submicrosalt by using a nanospray drying method, its use in surface salted cheese crackers and evaluating their physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics. The cheese cracker treatments consisted of 3 different salt sizes (regular, microsalt and submicrosalt) and 3 different concentrations (2, 1.5 and 1%). The 9 (3 sizes x 3 concentrations) different cheese cracker treatments were tested for salt concentration and sodium content at week 1. Water activity, yeast and mold counts, texture-fracturability, color, and consumer test were determined at week 1 and 4 months of storage. Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with repeated measures was used for water activity, yeast and mold counts, texture-fracturability, and color. A Balanced Incomplete Block Design was used to conduct the consumer analysis of cheese crackers for submicrosalt (2, 1.5 and 1%), microsalt (2, 1.5 and1%) and regular 2% (control as used by industry) using 476 participants. Submicrosalt treatments (2, 1.5 and 1%) had positive effect in yeast reduction at 4 months compared to regular salt (2, 1.5 and 1%). There was no mold growth in all treatments at all times. The L*, b*, C* and h* values in all treatments increased significantly (P<0.05) from 1 week to 4 months. At 4 months, submicrosalt treatments (2, 1.5 and 1%) resulted in having significantly (P<0.05) more preferred saltiness scores compared to control (regular 2%). At 4 months, submicrosalt (1.5 and 2%) showed significantly (P<0.05) more preferred just about right saltiness scores compared to control. The reduction of 25 and 50% salt content in cheese cracker through use of submicro particulated salt maintained low counts in yeasts, no counts in molds and did not adversely influence sensory color, aroma, crunchiness, overall liking and acceptability scores, which were the same compared to control and microsalt treatments (2, 1.5 and 1%). Reduction in sodium chloride particle size 1000 fold from regular salt to submicrosalt increased saltiness but reduction in salt size 10 fold from microsalt to submicrosalt did not increase the saltiness of surface salted cheese crackers.



Document Availability at the Time of Submission

Release the entire work immediately for access worldwide.

Committee Chair

Aryana, Kayanush J.