Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Mass Communication

Document Type



The study sought to explore the applicability of national stereotypes for implicit stereotype by measuring reaction times (RTs). Also, the study intended to suggest a more effective national image management in overseas practices by demonstrating the effect of counter-stereotype strategy on country-of-origin (COO) effect. A focus of the study was on China and Chinese people for national stereotypes and Chinese corporations and products made in China for the COO effect, considering unfavorable national images of China in news media and negative impressions on products made in China. The study compared national stereotypes of China and Chinese people and COO effect of Chinese corporations and products made in China with national stereotypes of Japan and Japanese people and Germany and German people and the COO effects of Japanese corporation and product made in Japan and German corporation and product made in Germany. Also, the study examined the comparison between U.S. and South Korean college students. The study employed two research methods, an experimental and online survey design. The results showed the potential that national stereotypes can be implicit by demonstrating a significant difference in subjects’ RTs. The difference in RTs between consistent and inconsistent attributes with countries’ existing national stereotypes can be inferred about the possibility that national stereotype can be implicit. The U.S. and South Korean participants reported more favorable perceptions of Japan and Japanese people than China and Chinese people and Germany and German people. The South Korean participants’ overall national stereotypes of the three countries were less favorable than the U.S. participants’. For the COO effect, the U.S. and South Korean participants also more favorably evaluated the Japanese corporation and its product than the two others, Chinese and German corporations and their products. Also, concerning the effect of counter-stereotype cues, the Chinese corporation with counter-stereotypical cues in the news story was more favorably evaluated than that of the other Chinese corporation without the cues. The study indicated the potential of applying national stereotypes for implicit stereotypes and utilizing counter-stereotype strategy in reducing unfavorable country images and suggested practical implications for overseas practitioners based on the findings.



Document Availability at the Time of Submission

Release the entire work immediately for access worldwide.

Committee Chair

Nelson, Richard Alan