Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Electrical and Computer Engineering

Document Type



Study of the decomposition of the active power into composite components with respects to power industry economics namely, working active power, reflected active power, and detrimental active power. The working active energy is considered the permanent flow of useful energy to the load that results in deliberate heat, lighting, or torque on the motor shaft. The reflected active energy is the extra component of active energy originating from the load and dissipates on the supply impedance that does not contribute to useful energy. Lastly, detrimental active energy is the flow of harmonic energy from the supply to the load due to supply asymmetry and distortion that does not contribute to useful energy to the load. Traditional revenue meters measure active energy as a whole. This means that the reflected active energy component does not get billed to the customer even though the utility must provide energy for the reflected active power and ultimately, not being compensated for energy delivered. Detrimental active energy gets charged by the traditional revenue meter yet does not contribute to useful energy. Instead this detrimental active energy is converted to useless energy, namely heat in an induction motor's windings yet the customer still pays for the useless energy harming his own equipment. As one can see, active power in the sense of economics is not a simple quantity as originally thought. With the introduction of a new working active power concept, energy accounts can be fairer to both the customer and utility. Using revenue meters based on working active power concept can pinpoint economic responsibilities of the customer and utility and accurately compensated.



Document Availability at the Time of Submission

Release the entire work immediately for access worldwide.

Committee Chair

Czarnecki, Leszek