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Conference Proceeding

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Most sedimentary rock formations (tight or highly porous) have geochemical characteristics that can lead to significant reactive ion exchange processes in aqueous media in the presence of carbon dioxide. The injection of carbon dioxide (CO ) in large scale as obtainable in carbon sequestration programs and in environmentally friendly hydraulic fracturing processes (using supercritical CO ), long term rock-fluid interaction can affect reservoir and seal rocks properties. The mineralogical components of sedimentary rocks are geochemically active particularly under enormous earth stresses, which generate high pressure and temperature conditions in the subsurface. It has been postulated that the effect of mineralization can lead to flow impedance in the presence of favourable geochemical and thermodynamic conditions. Simulation results suggested that influx-induced mineral dissolution/precipitation reactions within clay-based sedimentary rocks can continuously close micro-fracture networks, though injection pressure rapidly expand the fractures. This experimental modelling research investigated the impact of in-situ geochemical precipitation on conductivity of fractures. Geochemical analysis were performed on four different samples of shale rocks, effluent fluids and recovered precipitates both before and after CO -brine flooding of crushed shale rocks at moderately high temperature and pressure conditions. Three experimental runs per sample types were carried out in order to check the repeatability of observed changes. The results showed that most significant diagenetic changes in shale rocks after flooding with CO -brine, reflect in the effluent fluid with predominantly calcium based minerals dissolving and precipitating under experimental conditions. Major and trace elements in the effluent fluid indicated that multiple geochemical reactions are occurring with almost all of the constituent minerals participating. The geochemical composition of precipitates recovered after the experiments showed diagenetic carbonates and opal (quartz) as the main constituents. The bulk rock showed little changes in composition except for sharper and more refined peaks on XRD analysis, suggesting that a significant portion of the amorphous content of the rocks have been removed via dissolution by the slightly acid CO -brine fluid that was injected. It can be inferred that convective reactive transport of dissolved minerals are involved in nanoscale precipitation-dissolution processes in shale under carbon sequestration conditions. 2 2 2 2 2

Publication Source (Journal or Book title)

Energy Procedia

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