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© 2019 The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. Concerns on efficacies of termiticides used for soil treatment to prevent Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki) infestations have prompted pest control companies to suggest that retreatments are necessary after flooding of homes. Therefore, to address concerns about the efficacy of termiticides after flooding, we designed a flooding simulation experiment in the laboratory. We used four formulated termiticides containing fipronil, imidacloprid, chlorantraniliprole, or bifenthrin as active ingredients (a.i.) and two colonies of field-collected C. formosanus for this study. Evaluations of each chemical at concentrations of 1, 10, and 25 ppm in both sand and soil were conducted in the laboratory by comparing termite mortalities in no-choice bioassays after exposure to flooded (for 1 wk) and unflooded substrates. Toxicity from bifenthrin and fipronil were not affected by flooding regardless of substrate type except at the lowest concentration tested. Toxicity from chlorantraniliprole was lower in flooded sand at 1 ppm but otherwise similar among flooding treatments. In flooded soil, toxicity from chlorantraniliprole was low at 1 ppm, but unexpectedly high in flooded conditions at 10 and 25 ppm. For all concentrations of imidacloprid-treated sand, mortality of C. formosanus was reduced after a flood. However, like chlorantraniliprole, 10 and 25 ppm of imidacloprid-treated soil in flooded conditions resulted in an increased toxicity on C. formosanus. Our study supports the idea that chemicals with a higher water solubility like imidacloprid may require a home to be retreated with less water-soluble termiticides or baits after a flood.

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Journal of Economic Entomology

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