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© 2018 Swale et al. Background: The reduced efficacy of current Anopheline mosquito control methods underscores the need to develop new methods of control that exploit unique target sites and/or utilizes novel deployment methods. Autodissemination methodologies using insect growth regulators (IGRs) is growing in interest and has been shown to be effective at controlling Aedes mosquitoes in semi-field and field environments, yet little information exists for Anopheline mosquitoes. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that female-driven autodissemination of an IGR combined with a new mechanism of action insecticide (Kir channel inhibitor) could be employed to reduce Anopheline populations. Methodology: We studied the ability of three IGRs to be transferred to the larval habitat during oviposition in laboratory and semi-field environments. Adult mosquitoes were exposed to the chemicals for 4 hours immediately after blood feeding and efficacy was tested using classical methodologies, including adult emergence inhibition and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). A complete autodissemination design was tested in a semi-field environment. Principal findings: Larval survivability and adult emergence were significantly reduced in habitats that were visited by novaluron treated adults, but no statistical differences were observed with pyriproxyfen or triflumuron. These data suggested novaluron, but not pyriproxyfen or triflumuron, was horizontally transferred from the adult mosquito to the larval habitat during oviposition. HPLC studies supported the toxicity data and showed that novaluron was present in the majority of larval habitats, suggesting that novaluron can be horizontally transferred by Anopheles quadrimaculatus. Importantly, the combination of novaluron and the Kir channel inhibitor, VU041, was capable of reducing adult and larval populations in semi-field environments. Conclusions: Novaluron can be transferred to the adult at a greater efficacy and/or is not degraded as quickly during the gonotropic cycle when compared to pyriproxyfen or triflumuron. Pending field confirmation, autodissemination approaches with novaluron may be a suitable tool to manage Anopheles populations.

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PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases