Unified AC-DC Load Flow Via an Alternate AC-Equivalent Circuit

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Hybrid ac-dc grids can gain the benefits of both ac and dc grids. The Ac-Dc circuit analysis can be performed using sequential methods that decouple ac and dc systems or unified (simultaneous) methods that solve the ac and dc mismatch equations simultaneously. This paper introduces a unified ac-dc analysis via an improved model for the ac-dc coupling through which the ac and dc load flow analyses can be simultaneously conducted. The ac-dc coupling is modeled by an admittance building block, and thus, the dc grid is converted to an ac-equivalent circuit within the hybrid network. However, unlike past literature, state variables beyond nodal voltages and angles are avoided, leading to a simpler algorithm, and reactive power injection of the coupling mechanism, a requirement for the IEEE 1547 Std, is explicitly modeled. Furthermore, the proposed model can be applied to both voltage-source and line-commuted converters. Accordingly, the conventional ac power flow algorithms can be applied to the hybrid circuit paving the path for seamless adoption of hybrid circuits and significantly saving time and effort in programming, troubleshooting, and upgrading techniques currently used in research and industry as well as a high-level analysis tool regarding the hybrid ac-dc grid is achieved.

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IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications

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