Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium SPI-1 and SPI-2 Shape the Global Transcriptional Landscape in a Human Intestinal Organoid Model System.

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The intestinal epithelium is a primary interface for engagement of the host response by foodborne pathogens, like Salmonella enterica Typhimurium. While the interaction of S Typhimurium with the mammalian host has been well studied in transformed epithelial cell lines or in the complex intestinal environment in vivo, few tractable models recapitulate key features of the intestine. Human intestinal organoids (HIOs) contain a polarized epithelium with functionally differentiated cell subtypes, including enterocytes and goblet cells and a supporting mesenchymal cell layer. HIOs contain luminal space that supports bacterial replication, are more amenable to experimental manipulation than animals and are more reflective of physiological host responses. Here, we use the HIO model to define host transcriptional responses to S Typhimurium infection, also determining host pathways dependent on Salmonella pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-1)- and -2 (SPI-2)-encoded type 3 secretion systems (T3SS). Consistent with prior findings, we find that S Typhimurium strongly stimulates proinflammatory gene expression. Infection-induced cytokine gene expression was rapid, transient, and largely independent of SPI-1 T3SS-mediated invasion, likely due to continued luminal stimulation. Notably, S Typhimurium infection led to significant downregulation of host genes associated with cell cycle and DNA repair, leading to a reduction in cellular proliferation, dependent on SPI-1 and SPI-2 T3SS. The transcriptional profile of cell cycle-associated target genes implicates multiple miRNAs as mediators of S Typhimurium-dependent cell cycle suppression. These findings from Salmonella-infected HIOs delineate common and distinct contributions of SPI-1 and SPI-2 T3SSs in inducing early host responses during enteric infection and reinforce host cell proliferation as a process targeted by Salmonella IMPORTANCE Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S Typhimurium) causes a significant health burden worldwide, yet host responses to initial stages of intestinal infection remain poorly understood. Due to differences in infection outcome between mice and humans, physiological human host responses driven by major virulence determinants of Salmonella have been more challenging to evaluate. Here, we use the three-dimensional human intestinal organoid model to define early responses to infection with wild-type S Typhimurium and mutants defective in the SPI-1 or SPI-2 type-3 secretion systems. While both secretion system mutants show defects in mouse models of oral Salmonella infection, the specific contributions of each secretion system are less well understood. We show that S Typhimurium upregulates proinflammatory pathways independently of either secretion system, while the downregulation of the host cell cycle pathways relies on both SPI-1 and SPI-2. These findings lay the groundwork for future studies investigating how SPI-1- and SPI-2-driven host responses affect infection outcome and show the potential of this model to study host-pathogen interactions with other serovars to understand how initial interactions with the intestinal epithelium may affect pathogenesis.

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