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Fall 10-25-2023


The aim of this paper is to enhance the accuracy of predicting time-averaged external surface pressures on low-rise buildings by utilizing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. To achieve this, benchmark studies of the Silsoe cube and the Texas Tech University (TTU) experimental building are employed for comparison with simulation results. The paper is structured into three main sections. In the initial part, an appropriate domain size is selected based on the precision of mean pressure coefficients on the windward face of the cube, utilizing Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models. Subsequently, recommendations regarding the optimal computational domain size for an isolated building are provided based on revised findings. Moving on to the second part, the Silsoe cube model is examined within a horizontally homogeneous computational domain using more accurate turbulence models, such as Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and hybrid RANS-LES models. For computational efficiency, transient simulation settings are employed, building upon previous studies by the authors at the Windstorm Impact, Science, and Engineering (WISE) Lab, Louisiana State University (LSU). An optimal meshing strategy is determined for LES based on a grid convergence study. Three hybrid RANS-LES cases are investigated to achieve desired enhancements in the distribution of mean pressure coefficients on the Silsoe cube. In the final part, a 1:10 scale model of the TTU building is studied, incorporating the insights gained from the second part. The generated flow characteristics, including vertical profiles of mean velocity, turbulence intensity, and velocity spectra (small and large eddies), exhibit good agreement with full-scale (TTU) measurements. The results indicate promising roof pressures achieved through the careful consideration of meshing strategy, time step, domain size, inflow turbulence, near-wall treatment, and turbulence models. Moreover, this paper demonstrates an improvement in mean roof pressures compared to other state-of-the-art studies, thus highlighting the significance of CFD simulations in building aerodynamics.

Publication Source (Journal or Book title)

Wind and Structures

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Preprint of published paper: “Khaled, Md. F, Aly, A.M. (2023), "Augmenting external surface pressures’ predictions on isolated low-rise buildings using CFD simulations," Wind and Structures, 37(4), 255-274.