New routes toward chemical and photochemical vapor deposition of copper metal

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Several types of volatile copper(I) and copper(II) complexes have been studied as precursors for chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of Cu metal films. Adducts of Cu(hfac)2 (hfacH = hexafluoroacetylacetone) with alcohols ROH (R = Me, Et, n-Pr, i-Pr, n-Bu, s-Bu, i-Bu) are self-reducing: CVD occurs by reduction of copper(II) to Cu metal, while the alcohols are oxidized to the corresponding carbonyl compounds. The best results have been obtained for Cu(hfac)2·i-PrOH (1.3 μm h-1 under N2 at 200°C, vs. 0.46 μm h-1 under H2). The adduct of CuII(hfac)2 with hydrazine is also self-reducing, leading to Cu metal formation under N2 at substrate temperatures of 140°C. Adducts with other nitrogen bases (e.g. piperidine) can be used for Cu CVD with H2 carrier gas. The copper(I) amide cluster [CuN(SiMe3)2]4 can be used for Cu CVD under H2. It is also phosphorescent, and it shows a slight lowering of the threshold substrate temperature for Cu deposition under UV irradiation; this suggests that the deposition can be photochemically induced.

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ACS Symposium Series

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