Influence of surfactants and humic acids on Artemia Franciscana's embryonic phospho-metabolite profile as measured by P NMR

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Surfactants, such as triton X-100 (Tx-100), cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) are known to be toxic to Artemia Franciscana (Artemia) - an organism, frequently used to monitor the health of the aquatic environment. The phospho-metabolite profile of a living organism is often indicative of imbalances that may have been caused by environmental stressors, such as surfactants. This study utilizes in vivoP NMR to monitor temporal changes in the phospho-metabolite profile of Artemia caused by Tx-100, CPC, and SDS and the ability of humic acid (HA) to mitigate the toxicity of these surfactants. It was found that, while Tx-100 does not have any effect on the phospho-metabolite profile, both CPC and SDS cause a complete retardation in growth of the phosphodiester (PDE) peak in the P NMR spectrum, which is indicative of the inhibited cell replication. This growth inhibition was independently verified by the decreased guanosine triphosphate (GTP) concentration in the CPC and SDS-exposed Artemia. In addition, upon introduction of HA to the CPC and SDS-exposed Artemia, an increase of PDE peak over time is indicative of HA mitigating toxicity.

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Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)

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