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© 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Oncostatin M (OSM) is a multifunctional gp130 cytokine. Although OSM is produced in adipose tissue, it is not produced by adipocytes. OSM expression is significantly induced in adipose tissue from obese mice and humans. The OSM-specific receptor, OSM receptor ô (OSMR), is expressed in adipocytes, but its function remains largely unknown. To better understand the effects of OSM in adipose tissue, we knocked down Osmr expression in adipocytes in vitro using siRNA. In vivo, we generated a mouse line lacking Osmr in adiponectin-expressing cells (OSMRFKO mice). The effects of OSM on gene expression were also assessed in vitro and in vivo. OSM exerts proinflammatory effects on cultured adipocytes that are partially rescued by Osmr knockdown. Osm expression is significantly increased in adipose tissue T cells of high fat-fed mice. In addition, adipocyte Osmr expression is increased following high fat feeding. OSMRFKO mice exhibit increased insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation and have increased lean mass, femoral length, and bone volume. Also, OSMRFKO mice exhibit increased expression of Osm, the T cell markers Cd4 and Cd8, and the macrophage markers F4/80 and Cd11c. Interestingly, the same proinflammatory genes induced by OSM in adipocytes are induced in the adipose tissue of the OSMRFKO mouse, suggesting that increased expression of proinflammatory genes in adipose tissue arises both from adipocytes and other cell types. These findings suggest that adipocyte OSMR signaling is involved in the regulation of adipose tissue homeostasis and that, in obesity, OSMR ablation may exacerbate insulin resistance by promoting adipose tissue inflammation.

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Journal of Biological Chemistry

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