Complex formation and regulation of Escherichia coli acetyl-CoA carboxylase

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Acetyl-CoA carboxylase is a biotin-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the regulated step in fatty acid synthesis. The bacterial form has three separate components: biotin carboxylase, biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP), and carboxyltransferase. Catalysis by acetyl-CoA carboxylase proceeds via two half-reactions. In the first half-reaction, biotin carboxylase catalyzes the ATP-dependent carboxylation of biotin, which is covalently attached to BCCP, to form carboxybiotin. In the second half-reaction, carboxyltransferase transfers the carboxyl group from carboxybiotin to acetyl-CoA to form malonyl-CoA. All biotin-dependent carboxylases are proposed to have a two-site ping-pong mechanism in which the carboxylase and transferase activities are separate and do not interact. This posits two hypotheses: either biotin carboxylase and BCCP undergo the first half-reaction, BCCP dissociates, and then BCCP binds to carboxyltransferase, or all three constituents form an enzyme complex. To determine which hypothesis is correct, a steady-state enzyme kinetic analysis of Escherichia coli acetyl-CoA carboxylase was conducted. The results indicated the two active sites of acetyl-CoA carboxylase interact. Both in vitro and in vivo pull-down assays demonstrated that the three components of E. coli acetyl-CoA carboxylase form a multimeric complex and that complex formation is unaffected by acetyl-CoA, AMPPNP, and mRNA encoding carboxyltransferase. The implications of these findings for the regulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid biosynthesis are discussed.

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