Role of Nischarin in the pathology of diseases: a special emphasis on breast cancer

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Nischarin has been demonstrated to have tumor suppressor functions. In this review, we comprehensively discuss up to date information about Nischarin. In addition, this paper aims to report the prognostic value, clinical relevance, and biological significance of the Nischarin gene (NISCH) in breast cancer (BCa) patients using the Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium (METABRIC) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) datasets. We evaluated NISCH gene expression and its correlation to patient survival, baseline expression, and expression variation based on age groups, tumor stage, tumor size, tumor grade, and lymph node status in different subtypes of BCa. Since NISCH has been extensively reported to inhibit EMT and cancer cell migration, we also checked for the correlation between NISCH and EMT genes in addition to the correlation between NISCH and cell migration genes. Our results indicate that NISCH is a tumor suppressor that plays a critical role in BCa initiation, progression, and tumor development. We find that there is a higher level of NISCH expression in normal breast tissues compared to breast cancer tissues. Also, aggressive subtypes of breast cancers, such as the triple negative/basal category, have decreased levels of NISCH as the disease progresses. Finally, we report that NISCH is inversely correlated with many EMT and cancer cell migration genes in BCa. Interestingly, we identified a significant negative correlation between NISCH expression and its methylation in breast cancer patients. Overall, the goal of this report is to establish a strong clinical basis for further investigation into the cellular, molecular, and physiological roles of NISCH in BCa. Ultimately, NISCH gene expression might be clinically harnessed as a biomarker or predictor of invasiveness and metastasis in BCa.

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