Combined Effects Of A Ketogenic Diet And Exercise Training Alter Mitochondrial And Peroxisomal Substrate Oxidative Capacity In Skeletal Muscle

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Noland, Robert: 0000-0001-5543-3450
Linden, Melissa: 0000-0002-3152-0864

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Ketogenic diets (KDs) are reported to improve body weight, fat mass, and exercise performance in humans. Unfortunately, most rodent studies have used a low-protein KD, which does not recapitulate diets used by humans. Since skeletal muscle plays a critical role in responding to macronutrient perturbations induced by diet and exercise, the purpose of this study was to test if a normal-protein KD (NPKD) impacts shifts in skeletal muscle substrate oxidative capacity in response to exercise training (ExTr). A high fat, carbohydrate-deficient NPKD (16.1% protein, 83.9% fat, 0% carbohydrate) was given to C57BL/6J male mice for 6 wk, whereas controls (Con) received a low-fat diet with similar protein (15.9% protein, 11.9% fat, 72.2% carbohydrate). After 3 wk on the diet, mice began treadmill training 5 days/wk, 60 min/day for 3 wks. The NPKD increased body weight and fat mass, whereas ExTr negated a continued rise in adiposity. ExTr increased intramuscular glycogen, whereas the NPKD increased intramuscular triglycerides. Neither the NPKD nor ExTr alone altered mitochondrial content; however, in combination, the NPKD-ExTr group showed increases in PGC-1a and markers of mitochondrial fission/fusion. Pyruvate oxidative capacity was unchanged by either intervention, whereas ExTr increased leucine oxidation in NPKD-fed mice. Lipid metabolism pathways had the most notable changes as the NPKD and ExTr interventions both enhanced mitochondrial and peroxisomal lipid oxidation and many adaptations were additive or synergistic. Overall, these results suggest that a combination of a NPKD and ExTr induces additive and/or synergistic adaptations in skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. NEW & NOTEWORTHY A ketogenic diet with normal protein content (NPKD) increases body weight and fat mass, increases intramuscular triglyceride storage, and upregulates pathways related to protein metabolism. In combination with exercise training, a NPKD induces additive and/or synergistic activation of AMPK, PGC-1a, mitochondrial fission/fusion genes, mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, and peroxisomal adaptations in skeletal muscle. Collectively, results from this study provide mechanistic insight into adaptations in skeletal muscle relevant to keto-adaptation.

Publication Source (Journal or Book title)

American Journal Of Physiology-Endocrinology And Metabolism

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