Adipocyte-Derived Hormones

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© 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Once considered a passive participant in energy storage, adipose tissue is now recognized as a dynamic organ that performs important physiologic processes. Currently, adipose tissue and adipocytes themselves are widely recognized as the source of numerous endocrine mediators. Adipocytes and other cells present in adipose tissue secrete miRNA, exosomes, lipids, steroids, inflammatory cytokines, and peptide hormones that act in both paracrine and endocrine modes. Three peptide hormones with substantial endocrine activity are produced nearly exclusively from adipocytes. These three hormones are leptin, adiponectin, and resistin. In mice, they are produced in adipocytes. However, in humans, resistin is produced from immune cells. These hormones have all been discovered in the past 25. years, and research on these hormones has greatly enhanced our understanding of adipocyte function and its contributions to systemic metabolism. This review will focus on structure, signaling, and function of these hormones and their relationship to metabolic health.

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Hormonal Signaling in Biology and Medicine: Comprehensive Modern Endocrinology

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