Expression of an evolutionarily distinct novel BiP gene during the unfolded protein response in Arabidopsis thaliana
Compared to mammals, little is known about the unfolded protein response (UPR) in plants. Using an oligonucleotide array comprising ∼8200 Arabidopsis genes we investigated the effect of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress on gene expression. Expression of 26 genes increased, including at least nine whose products act in the ER, while their transcriptional activations were confirmed by promoter analyses. Among them, BiP-L, a novel BiP, whose expression appeared to be regulated by two promoter sequences perfectly matching mammalian ERSE. Cloning and sequencing of full-length BiP-L cDNA showed it contained a signal peptide sequence and the ER retention signal (HDEL). Interestingly, BiP-L was substantially different from the other two Arabidopsis BiP genes in genomic organization and sequence homology. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis showed that the BiP-L protein is the most distal form among the reported plant BiP proteins. RNA levels of BiP-L were very low in various mature Arabidopsis plant organs, while significant levels of BiP-L only observed in stressed seedlings. Transcription of BiP-L during ER stress was shown to be regulated by a feedback loop. © 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.