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© Springer International Publishing AG 2017. All rights reserved. The lingual and laryngeal apparatus are the mobile and active organs within the oral cavity, which serves as a gateway to the respiratory and alimentary systems in terrestrial vertebrates. Both organs play multiple roles in alimentation and vocalization besides respiration, but their structures and functions differ fundamentally in birds and mammals, just as the skull and jaws differ fundamentally in these two vertebrate classes. Furthermore, the movements of the lingual and laryngeal apparatus are interdependent with each other and with themovements of the jaw apparatus in complex and littleunderstood ways. Therefore, rather than updating the existing numerous reviews of the diversity in lingual morphology of birds, this chapter will concentrate on the functionalmorphological interdependences and interactions of the lingual and laryngeal apparatus with each other and with the skull and jaw apparatus. It Will.

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The Biology of the Avian Respiratory System: Evolution, Development, Structure and Function

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