Bioavailability of Orally Delivered Alpha-Tocopherol by Poly(Lactic-Co-Glycolic) Acid (PLGA) Nanoparticles and Chitosan Covered PLGA Nanoparticles in F344 Rats

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It is hypothesized that the bioavailability of αT (alpha-tocopherol), an antioxidant, can be improved when delivered by poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) and chitosan covered PLGA nanoparticles (PLGA-Chi NPs), and that the mucoadhesive properties of chitosan may enhance absorption of αT. PLGA and PLGA-Chi NPs were characterized by measuring entrapment efficiency, size, polydispersity, and zeta potential. Nanoparticle physical stability, chemical stability of entrapped αT, and release kinetics were also measured. Pharmacokinetic studies were conducted by administering PLGA (αT) NPs, PLGA-Chi (αT) NPs, and free αT via oral gavage in rats. The size and zeta potential of the two particle systems were 97.87 ± 2.63 nm and -36.2 ± 1.31 mV for PLGA(αT) NPs, and 134 ± 2.05 nm and 38.0 ± 2.90 mV for PLGA-Chi (αT) nanoparticles in DI water. The particle systems showed to be stable during various in vitro assays. Bioavailability of nanodelivered αT was improved compared to the free αT, by 170% and 121% for PLGA and PLGA-Chi NPs, respectively. It was concluded that while chitosan did not further improved bioavailability of αT, PLGA NPs protected the entrapped drug from the GI environment degradation and proved to be an effective delivery system for αT.

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