Experimental design and multivariate analysis for optimizing poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticle synthesis using molecular micelles

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The utility of polymeric nanoparticles as drug delivery systems depends on effective control of synthetic parameters with a significant impact on their physico-chemical characteristics. In this study, a chemometric central composite experimental design (CCD) was used to optimize the synthesis of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles by emulsification solvent evaporation using anionic molecular micelles, such as poly(sodium N-undecylenic sulfate) (poly-SUS), poly(sodium N-undecanoyl-glycinate) (poly-SUG) and poly(sodium N-undecanoyl-L-leucyl-valinate) (poly-L-SULV) as well as conventional emulsifiers, such as anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and non-ionic poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). The individual and combined effects of PLGA concentration, emulsifier concentration, homogenization speed, and sonication time (design variables) on particle size and polydispersity index (responses) were investigated using multivariate analysis. The most significant design variables influencing the nanoparticle size and size distribution were PLGA concentration and emulsifier concentration (p < 0.05) in comparison to the other design variables. The quadratic model demonstrated the highest predictive ability when the molecular micelles were used as emulsifiers. The PLGA nanoparticles optimally synthesized according to the CCD were further purified by dialysis and then freeze-dried. Dried nanoparticles synthesized with molecular micelles and PVA were readily re-suspended in water, as compared with SDS for which nanoparticle aggregation occurred. The size of PLGA nanoparticles synthesized using molecular micelles increased after freeze-drying, but remained smaller than 100 nm when poly-L-SULV was used as emulsifier. The PDI values indicated monodisperse nanoparticle suspensions after purification and freeze-drying for all investigated molecular micelles (PDI < 0.100). The nanoparticle suspensions synthesized using molecular micelles were the most stable after dialysis and freeze-drying, having low negative zeta potential values ranging from -54 +/- 1.6 mV for poly-L-SULV to -63.2 +/- 0.4 mV for poly-SUS. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs showed spherical shape and smooth surface for the PLGA nanoparticles synthesized using molecular micelles.

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Journal of nanoscience and nanotechnology

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