Efficiency of Artemia cysts removal as a model invasive spore using a continuous microwave system with heat recovery
A continuous microwave system to treat ballast water inoculated with Artemia salina cysts as a model invasive spore was tested for its efficacy in inactivating the cysts present. The system was tested at two different flow rates (1 and 2 L x min(-1)) and two different power levels (2.5 and 4.5 kW). Temperature profiles indicate that the system could deliver heating loads in excess of 100 degrees C in a uniform and near-instantaneous manner when using a heat recovery system. Except for a power and flow rate combination of 2.5 kW and 2 L x min(-1), complete inactivation of the cysts was observed at all combinations at holding times below 100 s. The microwave treatment was better or equal to the control treatment in inactivating the cysts. Use of heat exchangers increased the power conversion efficiency and the overall efficiency of the treatment system. Cost economics analysis indicates that in the present form of development microwave treatment costs are higher than the existing ballast water treatment methods. Overall, tests results indicated that microwave treatment of ballast water is a promising method that can be used in conjunction with other methods to form an efficient treatment system that can prevent introduction of potentially invasive spore forming species in non-native waters.
Publication Source (Journal or Book title)
Environmental science & technology
Balasubramanian, S., Ortego, J., Rusch, K. A., & Boldor, D. (2008). Efficiency of Artemia cysts removal as a model invasive spore using a continuous microwave system with heat recovery. Environmental science & technology, 42 (24), 9363-9. https://doi.org/10.1021/es8021107