Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


This study was conducted to: (1) determine secondary teachers' perceptions of the current status of geographic education programs in the Libyan general secondary schools; (2) illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of the programs by comparing the results of this research instrument with developed criteria that represent a well-designed secondary geographic program; (3) suggest general guidelines for future improvement. The study is limited to the Libyan day-time general secondary schools which are directed by the Libyan Secretariat of Education. It was conducted in summer 1983. Criteria for evaluating geographic education programs at the Libyan general secondary schools were developed after a thorough review of literature. A questionnaire was constructed to collect the desired information from the population of the study. It was translated into Arabic, tested and distributed to 202 geography teachers in 130 general secondary schools in Libya. A total of 146 usable questionnaires, or seventy-two percent of the total number of the questionnaires distributed, were returned. The data obtained from the questionnaires were tabulated and reported in terms of frequencies, percentages, means and median scores. Rank orders based on the mean scores were also used where appropriate. To illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of the existing Libyan secondary geographic education programs, items of the developed criteria were compared with results of the corresponding items on this survey instrument. Subjective ratings of excellent, good, fair and poor were used for most of the comparisons. But some were compared in terms of percent of use. The illustrated strengths include: teachers ability to identify what students are to learn, clearly state and revise their instructional objectives, help students to identify significant geography problems, and utilize a variety of activities. Among the revealed weaknesses are: insufficiency of details of the content, its inadequate revision and emphasis on local environmental problems, insufficient involvement of the teachers in developing the general objectives and in planning geography content and curriculum, inadequate supply of resources and materials, and an apparent emphasis on expository teaching methods. Based on these research findings, general guidelines for improving geographic education programs in the Libyan general secondary schools were suggested.