Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


The need for research on people participation in development, particularly by extension lay leaders, is especially important in the Philippines where, paradoxically manpower in agricultural extension is limited but abundant in the rural areas. This study, therefore, was conducted to analyze empirically the participation of lay leaders (LLs) in the local agricultural extension programs in two Philippine provinces. Basic data were developed by personal interview of 107 LLs and 79 extension agents (EAs) in these provinces. Participation of LLs was primarily in program implementation, quite minimal in planning and evaluation. In implementation, participation by the majority of the LLs was principally in the areas of: technical assistance, attending to project visitors, and communicating notices and directives to other people. Participation in planning was directed toward the identification of barangay needs and problems and the formulation of project objectives. The few who participated in evaluation basically monitored project activities. The LLs were highly favorable to participation especially in planning and implementation. Practically all of them favored participation in identifying barangay needs and problems, in furnishing information about the barangay, calling and presiding over meetings, attending to project visitors, and monitoring of project activities. The EAs perceived higher participation by their LLs whether it was in planning, implementation, or evaluation. However, they were not as enthusiastic as the LLs concerning LL participation in program development activities particularly in evaluation. The two groups of respondents also differed in the activities favored for LL participation. The correlation tests showed highly significant relationships among levels of participation in planning (LOP(,p)), implementation (LOP(,i)), and evaluation (LOP(,e)). Using the multiple regression analysis, the variance in LOP(,p) was best explained by organizational affiliation; that of LOP(,i), by age, organizational affiliation, family responsiveness, and preparation for work, these last two giving negative beta values; variance in LOP(,e) was explained by organizational affiliation; and variance in overall level of participation by organizational affiliation, family responsiveness, and preparation for work, again these last two variables giving negative beta values. It was concluded that lay leader participation in the local extension programs in the two Philippine provinces is apparent only in implementation.