Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


School of Nutrition and Food Sciences

Document Type



The objective of this research was to evaluate the feasibility of developing acceptable low-sodium products by using a salt-replacement technique, an oil-in-water emulsion system, and health benefit information to improve consumers’ awareness of low-sodium diets. Three experiments were conducted: (I) Sensory characteristics and optimization of low-sodium roasted peanuts by substitution of NaCl with KCl, and addition of glycine (Gly) as a bitterness blocker; (II) Rejection threshold (RjT) of KCl added to low-sodium roasted peanuts using a 2AC-test; (III) Development of acceptable low-sodium and sodium-free spreads by flavor modification and their use on turkey salad sandwiches. In study I, results showed that sodium content in peanuts decreased from 140mg/50g to 41.7mg/50g without affecting liking scores with positive purchase intent (PI) of >60%. Health messages (HM) related to high-sodium intake risks increased positive emotion responses while decreasing negative ones. The optimal range of 59-100/0-40/0-12.5 of NaCl/KCl/Gly yielded acceptable low-sodium peanuts. From Study II, up to 30-50% KCl did not significantly decrease overall liking (OL) scores, but OL scores decreased at 70-90% KCl; the same was observed for PI. Samples containing 70-90% KCl were perceived by consumers as “too salty,” and was associated with mean drops of 2.2 on the 9-point OL scale. No RjT of added KCl at 90% w/w in low-sodium roasted peanuts was reached under the conditions of this study. In Study III, consumers first indicated their willingness to purchase a sodium-free mayonnaise spread containing 1% KCl after a sodium claim was stated. Three levels of KCl (0.5, 1, and 1.5%) were tested with four selected flavors in the spreads. Acceptability of the flavored spreads increased by flavor modification. Bacon flavor significantly outperformed for all sensory attributes evaluated when compared to the rest of the treatments. Bitterness intensity of the samples was not associated with the mean drops on the OL scores. Low-sodium benefits HM increased PI for 10 treatments. Flavored spreads evaluated on turkey salad sandwiches yielded higher liking scores and PI than the spreads alone. Combination of a sodium HM and salt substitution with KCl increased liking scores, positive emotion responses and willingness to purchase low-sodium products.



Committee Chair

Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon



Included in

Food Science Commons