Sulfur speciation in granulated blast furnace slag: An X-ray absorption spectroscopic investigation

Document Type


Publication Date



Sulfur speciation in a granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) was analyzed by X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) before and after activation by saturated calcium hydroxide and five normal sodium hydroxide solutions. The solution to GGBFS ratio was 0.4. XANES showed that sulfur in GGBFS existed mostly as sulfides (frozen in calcium polyhedra) with a minor amount as sulfate. A slowly-cooled blast furnace slag, in contrast, had most of the sulfide transformed to sulfate. After activation of GGBFS, more sulfate formed and crystalline sulfide phases became more apparent. More slag reacted at lower pH than at higher pH. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Publication Source (Journal or Book title)

Cement and Concrete Research

First Page


Last Page


This document is currently not available here.