Morphology of large Halimeda bioherms, eastern Java sea (Indonesia): A side-scan sonar study

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The most extensive and thickest Halimeda bioherms reported from modern seas occur along both open and protected margins of Kalukalukuang Bank, eastern Java Sea (Indonesia). Seismic profiles suggest these features average 20 to 30 m thick (maximum ∼ 50 m) and developed over large areas by coalescence of individual mounds. Bioherm morphologies range from numerous small mounds (∼ 10-20 m diameter) through "hay-stack" features (∼ 100 m diameter) to broad swells. Some modern bank bioherms display surface forms that appear related to onbank flow from Makassar Strait. Upwelling of cold, nutritive water is likely responsible for unusual Halimeda productivity and large bioherm development. © 1987 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

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Geo-Marine Letters

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