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Surficial materials, including soil and dust, are abundant in the upper tens of centimeters of the Martian surface sensed by the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS). Seven large areas (14% of the Martian surface) that represent possible compositional end-members were selected, including three regions heavily mantled with surficial materials. The selection process included mapping the ratio of exposed rocky terrain to surficial materials using high-resolution imagery. GRS data for H, Cl, Fe, Si, K, and Th were obtained for each area. The areas are chemically homogeneous within each area, given the spatial resolution and analytical uncertainty of the GRS data. However, substantial chemical differences exist among the areas, including the different mantled terrains, contrary to earlier assumptions that surficial materials are globally homogeneous due to aeolian mixing. The observed chemical differences among the areas may be due to variations in the protolith compositions, extent of alteration of the protolith regions, or post soil formation processes. The abundances of Cl, K, and Th in rockier (but still soil-rich) areas such as Syrtis Major Planum can be explained by mixing between a soil with higher concentrations of Cl, K, and Th, similar to the abundances in the mantled terrains (and some of the landing sites), and crustal rocks containing lower abundances of these elements, similar to Martian meteorites. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

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Journal of Geophysical Research E: Planets